"So, naturalists observe, a flea has smaller fleas that on him prey; and these have smaller still to bite ’em; and so proceed ad infinitum."
- Jonathan Swift

January 15, 2023

Leucochloridium passeri

Leucochloridium paradoxum is one of those parasites which is immediately recognisable on sight. Commonly known as the "zombie snail parasite", its habit of turning the eyestalks of snails into pulsating candy canes has also earned it the name "green-banded broodsac", and it has appeared in various forms of media, including the opening of the Chainsaw Man anime. But far from just being a bizarre one-of-a-kind oddity, L. paradoxum is just one out of ten known species in the Leucochloridium genus which infect amber snails and produce these "broodsacs" structures. And these colourful, pulsating sacs are the key for distinguishing different species of Leucochloridium.

Left: Snail infected with Leucochloridium passeri collected from Hemei Township (Changhua County) by Jui-An Lin, photo from Fig. 1 of the paper. Top right: Labelled L. passeri broodsac from Fig. 1 of the paper. Bottom right: A trio of L. passeri broodsacs with metacercariae removed from an infected snail, from Supplementary video 3 of the paper

The adult stage of Leucochloridium are found in birds where they dwell in the cloaca or a special organ called Bursa of Fabricius. While parasite identification is usually based upon the various anatomical features of the adult parasite, in the case of Leucochloridium, the adult flukes of different species all look rather similar to each other. In contrast, the broodsac stages come in a wide variety of colours and patterns that are extremely noticeable and unique to each species. So short of comparing their DNA sequences, the colours and stripes of the larval broodsacs are the most reliable way to tell apart the different species.

This blog post features a study on Leucochloridium passeri, a species that was first described as adult flukes from Eurasian tree sparrows in Guangdong, and has subsequently been found across the Indomalayan realm. It is one of five different Leucochloridium species found in Taiwan, but it is the only one for which their broodsac stage has been documented. While not as well known as L. paradoxum, its broodsacs nevertheless present an attention-grabbing sight. You might recognise it from this video, which has gone viral and been posted all over the internet, usually without credit or attribution of the original source.

It can be easily distinguished from L. paradoxum and other Leucochloridium species by a distinctive wide band of red-brown patches or longitudinal stripes in the mid-section of each mature broodsac. Many people who have some familiarity with this parasite would know about the pulsating sacs forcing their way into the snail's eye tentacles, but what they might not know is that those are only part of the entire parasite mass residing within the snails.

Those pulsating "broodsacs" are actually the parasite's asexual larvae. In addition to the very flamboyant mature broodsacs, there are also translucent immature broodsacs which are tucked away deeper in the snail's body. Digenean flukes have an asexual stage in their life cycle, and in most flukes they produce hundreds to thousands of sausage-shaped asexual larvae in the snail's body. Those wriggly sausages would then give birth to free-swimming larvae called cercariae that are release into the environment where they infect the next host in the life cycle. In the case of Leucochloridium, the cercariae stay in those wriggly sausages and develop into round, jelly-coated cysts within the snail. Each mature broodsac can contain up to two hundred cysts, so when a bird swallows one of these colourful wriggling sausages, they are inviting hundreds of flukes to take up residency in their cloaca.

The L. passeri broodsacs described in this study were found in Yilan County in Taiwan, and they look very similar to some Leucochloridium broodsacs which have been found in Okinawa, Japan. They both have the distinctive wide band of red-brown stripes and splotches, and when researchers compared their DNA sequences, they found that they both belong to the same species - Leucochloridium passeri.

Relatively little is known about the birds that can serve as the final hosts for L. passeri, but researchers have noticed that the distribution of various Leucochloridium species in different zoogeographical regions seems to be related to the distribution of birds and amber snails which are native to those particular regions. Since some of those birds are migratory, this provides Leucochloridium with the means to cross oceans while seated snugly in the butt of their feathery host, ready to settle down wherever there are amber snails to infect. 

Chiu, M. C., Lin, Z. H., Hsu, P. W., & Chen, H. W. (2022). Molecular identification of the broodsacs from Leucochloridium passeri (Digenea: Leucochloridiidae) with a review of Leucochloridium species records in Taiwan. Parasitology International 102644.

P.S. Leucochloridium is a very distinctive parasite and has been subjected to numerous artistic depictions, here's my own artistic depiction of Leucochloridium in the form of a Parasite Monster Girl.

December 14, 2022

Stenurus globicephalae

Whales are big animals, even the "smaller" cetaceans such as dolphins and pilot whales are large animals in the range of body sizes across the animal kingdom. The thing about big animals is that they provide a lot of room for parasites. The myriad array of spacious organs found in an animal like a whale provide ample opportunities for parasites to become very specialised not just on a particular species of host, but on a very specific niche within the host's anatomy. Unsurprisingly, there are a wide range of parasites that make their home inside whales. With so many different species inhabiting different parts of the whale anatomy, it is perhaps not surprising that there are worms that specialise in living within the voluminous lungs and sinuses of whales. One of them is a genus named Stenurus.

Numerous Stenurus worms in the pterygoid sinuses of a short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus).
Photo from Fig. 1 of the paper. 

There are nine known species of Stenurus, all of them live in the respiratory system and sinuses of whales. Each of those worms differ in the particular cetacean species that they infect, as well as the part of the host's respiratory system they inhabit. The study being covered in today's blog post were based on samples collected from fourteen toothed whales that had been stranded along the Galicia coast between 2009 and 2019. There were a mix of six different whale species in total, and considering the population of parasites that each whale could support, it provided researchers with plenty of material to work with. Unlike most other parasitological studies where the dissection takes place in the controlled environment of a laboratory, you can't exactly bring a dead whale back to your lab. So instead, the parasites were collected via on-site necropsies.

The researchers found many different species of lung parasites from the different whales, including three species of Stenurus. But out of them, the most abundant was Stenurus globicephalae, which was found in three host species including Risso's Dolphin, Short-finned pilot whales, and Long-finned pilot whales. Each whale harboured between 18 to over 1700 of those worms, which were mostly found in the pterygoid sinus, located deep within the nasal passage near the back of the whale's throat. Previous studies have also recorded S. globicephalae dwelling in the lungs as well as other canals and cavities in a whale's head including the middle ear cavities and cranial sinuses. These worms seem to like dwelling in soft, moist tubes.

Stenurus globicephalae was found to be particularly prolific in short-finned pilot whales, which indicates that while it is capable of infecting other whale species, the short-finned pilot whale just so happens to be a particularly good "fit" for it. Each Stenurus species differ in their host preferences, and it seems to be related to how they get transmitted to the whale in the first place. Like with many other nematodes that infect whales, they do so by hiding in their host's food.

The researchers noticed a certain pattern of association between different species of Stenurus with the diet of the whale species they infect. For example S. globicephalae was associated with species that mostly ate squid, whereas those that ate fish or have a mixed diet tend to be infected with  S. ovatus and S. minor. So it is a case of "you are infected by what you eat".

Stenurus was not alone in its preference for whale respiratory structures. In some of the whales, the researchers found Stenurus cohabiting those airy passages with other parasites. One of those co-inhabitants was Halocercus - a different genus of whale lungworm which anchor themselves in place by plunging their head firmly into the host tissue. Another co-inhabitant was Nasitrema -  a fluke that lives in the air sinuses of small whales and has a nasty tendency to wander into the host's brain.

While having worms in your sinuses sounds uncomfortable, Stenurus lead a relatively peaceful existence within their wet, cosy homes, and their presence causes surprisingly little to no inflammatory responses. Or at least they do once they settle down as adult worms, because the larval worms can potentially cause focal pneumonia, while the adult worms have a more relaxed relationship with their surroundings. It is as if the whales progressively grow used to their presence, or the worms have grown to tame the fiery response of their host's immune system.


November 16, 2022

Acanthobdella peledina

In the cold rivers and lakes of the arctic and subarctic region, there live some rather peculiar worms with a face full of tiny hooks and an appetite for blood. These worms live as ectoparasites of fish, and they belong to a group called Acanthobdellida - relatives of leeches that seem to have gone down their own evolutionary path. These worms have also been called "hook-faced fish worms" and the entire group consists of only two known species - Acanthobdella peledina and Paracanthobdella livanowi

Top: Acanthobdella peledina on a grayling.
Bottom: Scanning electron micrograph of the whole worm (left) and close-up of the anterior body region (right).
Photos from Figure 1, 6, and 7 of the paper

Their mouthpart has been described as being a less sophisticated version of a leech's mouthpart - they lack the saw-edged jaws or the extensible proboscis found in many leeches, nor do they have the muscular sucker which surrounds the mouth. Instead, they have a protrusible pharynx and a series of hooks on the first five segments of the body, which they use to attach themselves to their fishy hosts. 

They have previously been considered to be a "missing link" between leeches and the rest of the Clitellata - the group of segmented worms that also includes earthworms and tubifex worms - as they have certain features which are commonly found in other clitellate worms but are absent in leeches. This includes having tiny bristles (called chaeta) on their segments, and a reproductive system similar to those found in earthworms.

Acanthobdella peledina is found all across the subarctic, where they range from being relatively rare to being found on over two-thirds of the fish at a given location. Given it is so widely distributed, with populations scattered across different geographical locales, could each of those distinct populations actually be different species? A group of researchers set out to determine whether there are actually more species of these hook-faced worms than meets the eye. Furthermore, they also wanted to find out how closely related Acanthobdella and Paracanthobdella are to each other. They did so by comparing museum specimens of hook-faced worms which have been collected from sites across the subarctic, including Norway, Sweden, Finland, Alaska, and Russia. 

Aside from examining their anatomical features, the researchers also compared five different key marker genes from these worms. Some of those DNA segments came from the mitochondria, others from the cell's nucleus. The reason for comparing multiple genes is that each has their own histories, and may offer different perspectives on the organism's evolutionary history. It is like interviewing different witnesses at a crime scene.  Unfortunately, for whatever reasons, the DNA of these worms proved to be particularly challenging to amplify and sequence, so for most specimens they were only able to sequence up to four of the five genetic markers they were aiming for, with some specimens only yielding sequences for two of the genes. Despite that limitation, the researchers were able to use the sequences they obtained to resolve the hook-faced worm's evolutionary history.

Despite their wide distribution across the arctic and subarctic regions, Acanthobdella peledina does appear to be a single, widespread species. While the Alaskan population of worms are genetically distinct from the Nordic population, they are not dissimilar enough for them to be considered as separate species. Furthermore, based on their analysis, the two living species of hook-faced worms are quite closely related to each other. In fact, it seems they had only diverged from each other just prior to the last ice age. So, far from being some kind of "missing link" between leeches and other clitellate worms, these hook-faced worms belong to their own distinct group.

But while the two living species had shared a common history until relatively recently, the hook-faced worms as a group had evolutionarily split off from the leeches a long time ago. Based on available data on these worms, this might have occurred during the early Cenozoic as the ancestors of the hook-faced worms became specialised on arctic freshwater fishes that arose during that era, such as salmonids.

So it might have been the pursuit of salmonids that had sent these worms down their own distinct path - a story which is probably relatable to any fly fishers out there.

de Carle, D. B., Gajda, Ł., Bielecki, A., Cios, S., Cichocka, J. M., Golden, H. E., Gryska, A. D., Sokolov, S., Shedko, M. B., Knudsen, R., Utevsky, S., Świątek, P. & Tessler, M. (2022). Recent evolution of ancient Arctic leech relatives: systematics of Acanthobdellida. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 196: 149-168.

October 18, 2022

Prochristianella sp.

Earlier this year, I wrote about Aggregata sinensis a species of single-celled apicomplexan parasite that infects octopus. But octopuses are host to a wide range of other parasites as well, especially parasitic worms. Most of these worms infect the octopus during their larval stage, and use the cephalopod as a way to travel up the food chain to their final host - usually predatory vertebrate animals such as sharks, birds, and marine mammals. Prochristianella is one such parasite.

Left: A stained specimen of Prochristianella metacestode, Right top: Scanning electron microscopy of a Prochristianella metacestode, Right bottom: Scanning electron microscopy close-up of the Prochristianella scolex with protruding tentacles
Photos from Fig 2 and Fig 3 of the paper.

The paper being featured in this blog post focused on Octopus maya, also known as the Mexican four-eyed octopus, of the Yucatán Peninsula. It is a popular species for commercial fisheries both caught from the wild and in aquaculture. Since it is such a widely fished and commonly eaten species, it would be a good idea to know just what kind of parasites are present in these octopus. The researchers obtained sixty O. maya from local fishermen in Mexico who have caught octopuses from four locations in Yucatán - Sisal, Progreso, Dzilam de Bravo, and Río Lagartos. These cephalopods were caught using a tradition line fishing technique called al garete where multiple lines of hooks baited with crabs are dangled from a small drifting boat and dragged along by the current.

When the researchers dissected the octopuses, they found seven different types of tapeworm larvae in total, each occupying a different part of the octopus' body. Some were found in the intestine, others in the digestive glands, some were in the gills, and there were even some species that hung out in the ink sac. By far the most common species was Prochristianella, it was present at all four collection sites and was found in every single octopus the researchers examined. This tapeworm specifically occupied the octopus' buccal mass - the ball of muscles and connective tissue that houses the octopus' mouth. Not only was it common, Prochristianella was also extremely abundant, with each octopus having on average over a hundred Prochristianella larvae embedded in their buccal mass, while the octopus from Río Lagartos had over a thousand such tapeworms each. 

In fact, Río Lagartos seems to be tapeworm central, as that is also the location where the other six species of tapeworms also reach their highest prevalence and abundance. Perhaps it has something to do with Río Lagartos being located at the Ria Largatos lagoon, which is part of a nature reserve. Higher level of biodiversity can facilitate the transmission of parasites such as marine tapeworms, which need to use many different species of host animals to complete their complex life cycles.

Prochristianella was one of four types of trypanorhynch tapeworms found in the octopus. These tapeworms need to infect elasmobranch fishes such as sharks and rays to complete their life cycle, and the octopus, being prey to those fishes, is a convenient way for these parasites to get there. One of the unique features of trypanorhynch tapeworms is their attachment mechanism. Unlike other tapeworms with their hooks and suckers, the scolex of trypanorhynchs are armed with gnarly hook-lined tentacles, which shoot out like harpoons to anchor themselves into the intestinal wall of their elasmobranch host.

One of the possible reasons why Prochristianella is so common and numerous among those octopuses is because it uses shrimps as one of the intermediate hosts in its life cycle. Octopus feed on shrimps throughout their entire life, so even if the tapeworm is relatively uncommon in shrimps, they can accumulate in the octopus over its lifetime. That's how those octopus end up with over a hundred or even a thousand such tapeworm larvae around their mouth.

The next most common tapeworm in those octopus after Prochristianella was another trypanorhynchan tapeworms called Eutetrarhynchus, found in the digestive glands and ink sac. Though not as widespread or abundant as Prochristianella, it is still fairly common throughout the Yucatán Peninsula. The rest of the tapeworms is a smattering of different species, and while all of them complete their life cycles and develop into adult worms in sharks and rays, the path that they take to get there varies slightly. Some of the rarer species in this study usually use other animals such as bony fishes as intermediate or paratenic (transport) hosts, and occasionally end up in octopuses. While others, such as Phoreiobothrium, infect a wide range of different cephalopods, and O. maya just happen to be one of many potential hosts on their list. Overall, while they varied in abundance at different locations, these same set of tapeworms were present in octopus across the Yucatán Peninsula.

The variety of tapeworms and other parasites found in O. maya shows that this cephalopod is an important junction point in the life cycles of many parasites. Being predators in their own right, octopuses end up accumulating parasite larvae which would otherwise be thinly dispersed throughout the population of small prey animals, such as shrimps. Meanwhile, octopus themselves are eaten by a wide variety of larger animals, thus providing the means for some parasites to work their way up the food chain, into large marine predators such as sharks where they can complete their life cycles. 

Through their parasites, we can see how these octopuses interact with other animals and their place in the wider marine ecosystem.


September 20, 2022

Hymenoepimecis bicolor

Over the course of human history, numerous species of plants, animals, and other organisms have been taken from their original habitats and introduced (either intentionally or accidentally) to other parts of the world. Some of those introduced species become "invasives" in their new home, partly due to the lack of natural enemies. But while many invasive species get a brief moment of respite from their old adversaries, the local parasite and predators quickly catch on that the new arrival could be added to their menus too. This was the case for a species of spider that has been introduced to Brazil, where it ended up attracting the attention of a mind-controlling wasp.

Left top: Hymenoepimecis bicolor larva on a spider host, Left bottom: Developing H. bicolor cocoon in a cocoon web,
Right: an adult H. bicolor wasp.
Photo of H. bicolor larva from Fig. 2 of this paper, Photos of cocoon and adult H. bicolor from Fig. 7 and 9 of this paper

Hymenoepimecis bicolor is a species of parasitoid wasp that belongs to a subfamily of wasps called Pimplinae. All the members of that subfamily are a spider's worst nightmares. These wasps specialise in attacking spiders at every stage of their lives - some species go after the unhatched eggs in silk sacs, while others tackle fully-grown adult spiders. Not only that, some of them are also masterful mind manipulators that induce their host spider into spinning a special web called a "cocoon web" that secures the wasp's developing cocoon. And Hymenoepimecis bicolor just happens to be one such manipulator.

Among the pimpline wasps, each species have their own host preferences and in the case of H. bicolor, one of its usual hosts is the golden silk orb-weaver (Trichonephila clavipes), a spider which is native to Brazil. When a female H. bicolor spots a potential host, she flies in and grapples with it, immobilising the spider by stabbing it in the mouth with her ovipositor, before checking it for other wasp eggs, and then planting one of her own. The thing about the golden silk orb-weaver is that while the juvenile spiders are relatively easy for H. bicolor to handle, once the spiders reach adulthood, they become more dangerous for the wasp to tackle. 

Nevertheless, limited host availability means that the wasp sometimes need to go after the bigger spiders anyway, with demand being so high that some spiders end up being parasitised by two wasp larvae at the same time. But the arrival of the tropical tent-web spider (Cyrtophora citricola) has provided H. bicolor with some new options.

The tropical tent-web spider has spread to many parts of the world by hitchhiking in shipments of fruit, potted plants, or packing material, and it has made its way to South America about three decades ago. And it just so happens that their size and habits place them firmly in the sight of H. bicolor. Not only is the tent-web spider in the preferred size range for H. bicolor to parasitise, much like the native orb-weavers, this introduced spider constructs open webs that leave them exposed to attacks. Researchers found that the H. bicolor larvae are able to successfully parasitise the tent-web spider just as well as the native spiders.

While H. bicolor larvae grow well and pupate as usual on the tent-web spiders, it seems that they haven't yet achieved complete mastery over this new-fangled host. As mentioned earlier, when these wasps are ready to pupate, they commandeer their spider hosts to weave a special "cocoon web" that suspends the developing wasp cocoon in mid-air. This makes the cocoon less accessible to any would-be predators or hyperparasitoids. Hymenoepimecis  bicolor embellish that with an added layer of security, by inducing the spider to also build a series "barrier threads" around the cocoon that further bar entry, as well as making the web more stable

This is where the introduced spider host falls short. While the parasitised tent-web spider is able to produce the usual cocoon web with the necessary structure to support and suspend the developing cocoon, it lacks the finishing touches of those additional barrier threads. Ironically, compared with the spiders that H. bicolor usually targets, the regular webs made by the tent-web spider actually needs less modification to make it suitable for the wasp's cocoon.

Based on what's known about these wasps, when it is ready to pupate, the wasp larva produces a cocktail of chemicals that place the spider under its spell. But in this case, it looks like that cocktail formula needs a bit of tweaking to work its full magic on the introduced tent-web spider. While not perfect, it serves its purpose well enough, and the introduction of this spider has allowed a parasitoid wasp to expand its host horizons.


August 14, 2022

Cyclocotyla bellones

At the top of this blog, there is a quote by Jonathan Swift about how fleas have smaller fleas that bite them. Indeed, parasites becoming host to other types of parasites is actually a rather common phenomenon in the natural world. Those who would parasitise the parasites are called "hyperparasites".

Left: Cyclocotyla bellones on the back of a Ceratothoa isopod, Right: C. bellones coloured red with Carmine staining.
Photos from Figure 1 and 5 of the paper.

The parasite featured in this post was once suspected of being a hyperparasite. Cyclocotyla bellones is a species of monogenean - it belongs to a diverse group of parasitic flatworms that mostly live on the body of fish, parasitising the fins, skins, and gills of their hosts. But unlike other monogeneans, C. bellones does not attach itself to any part of a fish's body, instead it prefers to stick its suckers onto the carapace of parasitic isopods, such Ceratothoa - the infamous tongue biter. Since Ceratothoa is itself a fish parasite, and C. bellones is routinely found attached to those tongue-biters, this has led some to think that it might be a hyperparasite of those parasitic crustaceans.

But it takes more than simply sticking yourself onto another organism to be considered as a parasite of it. After all, there are algae that grow on the body of various aquatic creatures, or barnacles that are found on the backs of large marine animals like whales and turtles. But those are not considered as parasites as they don't treat their host as a food source, merely as a sturdy surface they can cling to - they're known as epibionts.

So strictly speaking, for Cyclocotyla to be a parasite of the isopod, it needs to be feeding on or obtaining its nutrient directly from its isopod mount. When scientists examine the bodies of the tongue-biters with C. bellones on them, they seem to be pretty unscathed. There aren't any scratches or holes on the isopod's body which you'd expect if C. bellones had been feeding on it. Indeed, the monogenean's mouthpart seems ill-suited for scraping through the isopod's carapace.

Additionally, C. bellones' gut is filled with some kind of dark substance similar to those found in other, related monogenean species. This is most likely digested blood from the fish, which the monogenean has either sucked directly from the fish's gills, or indirectly via the feeding action of its isopod mount. Let's not forget that the isopod itself is a fish parasite that feeds on its host's blood, so if it gets a bit messy during mealtime, perhaps Cyclocotyla is there to suck up any spilled blood. Or it might be doing a bit of both.

The researcher noted that Cyclocotyla is not alone in its habit of riding isopods. Other monogeneans in its family (Diclidophoridae) have also been recorded as attaching to parasitic isopods of fish. And aside from riding isopods, they all share one thing in common - a long, stretchy forebody, looking somewhat like the neck of sauropod dinosaurs. Much like how the neck of those dinosaurs allowed them to browse vegetation from a wide area, the long forebody of Cyclocotyla allows it to graze on the fish's gills while sitting high on the back of an isopod. So fish blood is what C. bellone is really after - the isopod is merely a convenient platform for it to sit on.

But why should these monogeneans even ride on an isopod in the first place? Cyclocotyla and others like it have perfectly good sets of suckers for clinging to a fish's gills. Indeed, there are other similarly-equipped monogeneans that live just fine as fish ectoparasites without doing so from the back of an isopod. Well, that's because the fish themselves don't take too kindly to the monogeneans' presence. These flatworms are constantly under attack from the fish's immune system, which bombards them with all kinds of enzymes, antibodies, and immune cells. By avoiding direct contact with the fish's tissue, Cyclocotyla and other isopod-riders can avoid being ravaged by the host's immune system - which is something that other monogeneans have to deal with on a constant basis.

So it seems that Cyclocotyla and other isopod-riding monogeneans are no hyperparasites - they're all just regular fish parasites that happen to prefer doing so while sitting on the backs of isopods. Cyclocotyla bellones prefers to share in the feast of fish blood with its isopod mount, while sitting high above the wrath of the host's immune response.


July 18, 2022

Dolichoperoides macalpini

Australia has some of the most venomous snakes in the world, but the mouths of those reptiles are filled with more than just venomous fangs. In some cases, they are filled with tiny digenean flukes, specifically Dolichoperoides macalpini. This species of fluke was first reported from the lowland copperhead snakes in the 1890s, but it wasn't until 1918 that it was formally identified and described, and in 1940 it was placed in its own genus when it was recognised that it was specifically associated with elapid snakes. Since then, there hasn't been much further studies on this fluke, and the research team behind the paper in this post seeks to fill in that knowledge gap.

Left: Dolichoperoides macalpini in a snake's mouth, Right: Dolichoperoides macalpini in a snake's lungs
Photos from Fig. 1 of the paper

For this study, the researchers collected snakes from parts of Tasmania and Western Australia.
In Tasmania, they collected roadkills composed of Tiger Snake (Notechis scutatus) and Lowland Copperhead (Austrelaps superbus). While in Western Australia, they obtained freshly caught and euthanised Western Tiger Snake (Notechis scutatus occidentalis) which were collected as a part of another, larger project examining tiger snakes from wetlands in and around Perth. Dolichoperoides macalpini were mostly found in the snake's mouth, oesophagus, and stomach. And when the snake's mouth is open, the flukes are clearly visible as tiny black specks that clung to the roof of the snake's mouth (see accompanying photo). However, the snakes from Tasmania had D. macalpini in their lungs and intestine as well. So what's going on there? 

This could be because the snake specimens examined in Tasmania were roadkills. In some cases, after the host dies, its parasites may move from their usual location to different parts of the host's body, possibly due to some last ditch survival instincts. This phenomenon is well-known in anisakid nematodes, which is a major seafood-borne zoonotic parasite. After their fish host is caught, these worms often migrate from their host's viscera to its flesh. In the case of D. macalpini, once they sense that their host had died, perhaps they evacuated away from the mouth and throat to other, deeper parts of the body such as the lungs and intestine in a desperate bid for survival.

This may also explain some of the other differences the researchers found in the infection patterns of different snake populations. The Tassie snakes generally had fewer flukes than those which were caught around Perth. Since the Tasmanian snakes were found as roadkill, it is possible that the flukes which didn't crawl to the lungs or intestine had just ended up abandoning the snake altogether.

But this difference in fluke abundance may have also been influenced by other more innate factors of the snakes' ecologies. The encysted larval stage of D. macalpini are found in frogs, which the Perth snakes were particularly fond of, with frogs accounting for almost 90% of their diet. This provided them with ample opportunities to encounter the infective larval stages of D. macalpini through their food. In contrast, the Tassie snakes had a more varied diet consisting of rodents, birds, and lizards - but no frogs.

Additionally, there were also other differences among the flukes themselves. For example, while the snakes from Perth were more heavily infected, their flukes were only about half the size of those found in the Tasmanian snakes. While such size differences might have indicated that the flukes in those separate snake populations may in fact be different species, genetic analyses showed otherwise. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS gene sequences - which are key genetic markers for delineating different species among these parasites - were identical for the flukes from both Tasmanian and Perth snakes.

So there must be other reasons for such marked differences in their sizes. Perhaps in more heavily infected hosts, the crowded environment may have limited the flukes' growth? Studies on other species of flukes have found that those from more heavily infected hosts tend to be smaller on average than their counterparts from less parasitised hosts. This diminished growth may be the result of competition over limited resources, be it host nutrient, or simply available space for growth. Or perhaps there are slight variations between the biology of different snake species that can influence the fluke's growth?

The result of this study offers a brief glimpse into the distribution and infection patterns of D. macalpini in Australian snakes, and it raises some tantalising questions about the parasite's ecology. But there are many other reptile parasites in Australia for which little is known about them outside of a taxonomic description. Despite having one of the world's richest reptile fauna, the parasites fauna of Australian reptiles are relatively understudied. Not only are they an integral part of Australia's biodiversity, understanding these parasites can also tell us about how their reptile hosts are connect with the rest of the ecosystem.


June 18, 2022

Sarcotaces izawai

Parasitic copepods are a weird bunch, and many of them look nothing like what most people would recognise as a crustacean. But even among those weirdos, Sarcotaces stands out, because during the course of its evolution, it has turned into a big teardrop-shaped blob living inside a fish's body.

Top left: Staining of the fish body due to Sarcotaces, Top right: Sarcotaces extracted from fish flesh
Left: A Female Sarcotaces specimen (about 4 cm in length)
Photos from Fig. 1 and Graphical Abstract of the paper.

There are seven known species of Sarcotaces, all of which are parasites that dwell in fleshy galls embedded in the muscles of fish. The female of the species can grow up to about 5 cm long. They belong to a family of copepods called Philichthyidae which all specialise in living within nooks and crannies of a fish's body, including their skull, sensory canals, or inside galls just beneath the fish's skin. The study featured in this blog post described a newly discovered species of Sarcotaces - Sarcotaces izawai.

Specimens of S. izawai were retrieved from a consignment of frozen fish which were originally destined for the fish market, but were redirected to researchers when the County Veterinary Inspector of Szczecin noticed signs of infection in some of the fish. In total, 29 fish were taken to the University of Szczecin for further examination. Nine of those fish were found to harbour the gall of Sarcotaces - where there was once fish muscle had been turned into a black void, a dark fleshy cavern where the female Sarcotaces resided alongside her tiny males and microscopic larvae.

The black liquid associated with this copepod is what gave Sarcotaces its German name - "Tintenbeutel" which means "ink bag", and why in parts of Australia, they're called "Iodine Worms". Even in the other fish where no Sarcotaces were found, the fish's flesh were tainted with an ink-stained void, which most likely meant a Sarcotaces had once lived there, but was inadvertently removed when the fish were being processed. While the presence of this parasite does not pose any health hazards to any would-be consumers, the inky stain in the fish's flesh do render them off-putting to any would-be buyers on the market. But, because of this, the researchers were given an opportunity to conduct detailed scanning electron microscopy on the copepod, and provided the first DNA barcode for this unique genus of parasite based on its COI gene.

While the female S. izawai is very distinct and noticeable, the male is rather inconspicuous - they grow to about 3 mm in length, and are comparatively tiny and fairly nondescript. In comparison, the female is shaped like a knobbly radish, and grows to 2.5 to 5 cm in length or 10-20 times the length of the male. This size difference is comparable to that of a human and a sperm whale. It also means that a single female could be accompanied by multiple males. Indeed, the researchers found one female who was accompanied by 18 suitors in her flesh gall.

While very little is known about how the microscopic, free-swimming larvae of Sarcotaces gets into a fish in the first place,  it seems that the growth and development of the female Sarcotaces takes place entirely within the sac-like gall. This flesh bag has a tiny opening to the outside world that the copepod usually keeps plugged using the pointy tip of her body, and unplugs to release larvae into the surrounding waters. Because of this, the researchers consider Sarcotaces as a "mesoparasite", because while they largely live within the fish's body, they still maintain some contact with the outside world with the tip of the body plugging up that hole.

As an added layer to that study, the consignment of frozen fish that the researchers examined have been been frozen and thawed multiple times, and were "pan-dressed" - in that their head, fins, and the guts have been taken out - this might be why some of the fish had the characteristic inky stain of Sarcotaces even though the parasite was absent. This made the identification of those fish rather difficult simply through visual inspection. While the consignment of fish were labelled as Pseudophycis bachus - red codling - from "The Falklands", the researchers found this to be a case of seafood identity fraud.

When they did some DNA analyses they found that the fish were actually Mora moro - a species of deep sea cod which is found in temperate seas across many parts of the world, but has not been recorded from the Falklands. It is likely that the fish wholesalers were trying to use the mislabelling to bypass regional quotas or conceal catches from restricted waters.

This type of seafood mislabelling is very common around the world, and presents problems for consumer protection, food safety and supply, fisheries regulations, and conservation. In this case, not only did the ink-stained fillets of these Sarcotaces-infected fish provide scientists with an opportunity to examine a poorly-understood parasite, the presence of this tubby copepod also helped draw attention to a case of seafood identity fraud.


May 20, 2022

Guimaraesiella sp.

Quite a few years ago I wrote a blog post about a study on some bird lice that hitch-hike on louse flies as a way of reaching new hosts - this type of interaction whereby an organism attach itself to the body of another as a way of getting around is called "phoresy". And while it is a fascinating interaction with important ecological implications, this phenomenon is not particularly well-studied. Well, the paper that is being featured in this blog post revisited that field of research, and used multiple approaches to investigate this type of interaction. And the researchers behind it did so by combining literature review, traditional parasitology, DNA barcoding, and citizen science.

Left: Guimaraesiella lice found on from louse flies. Right: Louse fly with lice attached (indicated by red arrows). 
From Figure 3 of the paper.

The researchers of this study were trying to figure out how common phoresy is among bird lice, and who exactly is hitch-hiking on what. They conducted a review of the existing scientific literature on phoretic relationships between lice and louse flies, and found that many of the older records were unusable because they lack sufficient details regarding species identity of the lice involved. Furthermore, while phoretic behaviour in lice is most well-documented in North America and Europe, there are other parts of the world with much richer avian fauna (and thus more bird lice species), but phoretic behaviour of bird lice in those regions are not as well-studied.

To address this, the researchers came up with a way of collecting lice and louse flies from a large number of birds, and did so with some help from members of the public. As a part of long-term project to monitor bird mortality from vehicle and building collisions, ordinary citizens in Singapore were encouraged to report any dead birds that they come across. Through this, the researchers were able to track down and collect over a hundred recently deceased birds for this study. They then screened the dead birds for lice and louse flies, which were identified based on their morphology and their DNA.

In total, they screened 131 birds composed of 54 different species, and collected 603 lice and 32 louse flies. Of those, 22 birds had louse flies on them, but only three of the louse flies also happened to be carrying hitch-hiking lice, which were identified as belonging to the genus Guimaraesiella. Amidst all that, they found something unexpected - one of the birds, a Blue-winged pitta (Pitta moluccensis) was infected with louse flies carrying Guimaraesiella lice. This is the first time that Guimaraesiella lice has been found on pittas, as those birds are usually infected with lice in the Picicola genus.

It is likely that riding on louse flies is how Guimaraesiella ended up on the pitta. Indeed, lice in that genus appear to live on a wider range of birds compared with most bird lice, which are often confined to a single or handful of closely related host species, and its hitch-hiking habit may be the key to their success. While bird lice are very adept at climbing around and between their host's feathers, they are completely helpless off the host's body. This doesn't give them much opportunity to branch out and onto other bird species as they can only climb onto a new host through direct contact.

But since louse flies feed on a variety of different bird hosts, travelling on one of those flying blood-suckers can open up a whole new world of possibilities for lice that engage in phoresy. The species of Guimaraesiella lice they found on the pitta has also been found on at least 24 other species of birds, possibly more. Considering that the louse fly that Guimaraesiella rides on - Ornithophila metallica - feeds from over a hundred different bird genera, perhaps it is surprising that Guimaraesiella hasn't been found from even more bird species. So while the louse fly presents its hitch-hiker lice with many different species of birds, those well-travelled lice still stay fairly selective when it comes to where they settle on. These lice are like Goldilocks when it comes to picking a new feathery home - it needs to be just the right fit.

The approach taken by the researchers in this study to recover and screen large numbers of birds for louse flies and lice can also be applied to other parts of the world. This would help us obtain a more complete understanding of how widespread hitch-hiking lice actually are, and the role this behaviour has played in the evolution of these ectoparasitic insects.

Lee, L., Tan, D. J., Oboňa, J., Gustafsson, D. R., Ang, Y., & Meier, R. (2022). Hitchhiking into the future on a fly: Toward a better understanding of phoresy and avian louse evolution (Phthiraptera) by screening bird carcasses for phoretic lice on hippoboscid flies (Diptera). Systematic Entomology 47: 420-429.

April 21, 2022

Aggregata sinensis

Apicomplexa is a diverse phylum of single-celled parasites. They are found in a wide range of different animals, and includes some well-known species which can infect humans such as the malaria-causing Plasmodium, the infamous and widespread Toxoplasma gondii, and the gut-busting Cryptosporidium. But it is not as if this group has any particular affinity for humanity - humans are just one species among many across the animal kingdom that are hosts for apicomplexan parasites. Most of the more well-studied apicomplexans are those that infect terrestrial animals, especially domesticated species, but far less is known about apicomplexan parasites that are found in the marine realm.

Top left: Aggregata sinensis oocysts in the membrane between the arms of an octopus. Top right: Oocysts in the branchial heart.
Bottom left: Sporocysts found within an oocyst. Bottom right: Sporozoite released from a sporocyst.
Photos from Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 of the paper

Aggregata is a genus of apicomplexan which specifically targets cephalopods - mainly octopuses. Octopus can become infected from eating crustaceans such as shrimps which harbours the asexual stage of the parasite. Once they get into the octopus gut, the parasite takes over the digestive tract, and undergo sexual reproduction in the cells of the gut lining. There are twenty different known species of Aggregata, and it seems that for octopuses, there is no escape from this genus of parasite - even deep sea species living around hydrothermal vents are targeted by their own specialised species of Aggregata parasite.

So there are no doubt many other species of Aggregata out there which are still undiscovered. The paper featured in this blog post describes a species of Aggregata called Aggregata sinensis which has been found in octopus from the eastern-central coastal waters of China and the northern tip of Taiwan. The parasite was found infecting two species of octopus - the webfoot octopus and the long arm octopus - both of which are commercially important species that are caught by the local fishermen. 

The parasite was rather common, and depending on the location, between 20-100% of the octopuses that the researchers examined were afflicted with A. sinensis. Because the way an octopus becomes infected is from eating parasitised prey, Aggregata infection initially starts in the digestive tract, but it doesn't stay there for long. In heavy infections, the parasite spills over into other parts of the body in a very visible way. As Aggregata proliferates in the octopus, it leaves tell-tale signs of their presence in the form of white cysts that speckle the octopus' body. Those white cysts are called oocysts, which are the results of the parasite's sexual reproduction. Aggregata can wreak a destructive toll on the octopus's health. As the parasite proliferates, they smother the gut lining and destroy the submucosa cells, which compromise the octopus' ability to absorb nutrients. 

As if that's not enough, those white oocysts are filled with microscopic spheres called sporocysts which need to depart from the octopus' body to continue the life cycle, and they do so in a destructive manner. The release of those Aggregata oocysts necessitates the rupture and shedding of the surrounding hosts cells, resulting in ulcers and atrophy of the gut lining and connective tissues. Once free in the surrounding waters, should the sporocysts find themselves in an unlucky crustacean, they unravel to reveal their payload of worms-shaped sporozoites. These squirm out and settle in the crustacean's gut where they undergo asexual reproduction, and start the life cycle anew.

A recent study on the phylogeny of Apicomplexa suggests that Aggregata belongs to a group called the Marosporida - which occupies a key evolutionary position within Apicomplexa, separate from the rest of the phylum. Which means that understanding parasites like Aggregata may also help us understand the evolution of the Apicomplexa phylum as a whole, and how they became one of the most successful and ubiquitous group of parasites on the planet.

Ren, J., & Zheng, X. (2022). Aggregata sinensis n. sp.(Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae), a new coccidian parasite from Amphioctopus fangsiao and Octopus minor (Mollusca: Octopodidae) in the Western Pacific Ocean. Parasitology Research 121: 373-381.